That's why it took over 70 years to obtain a pure sample! It is a metal, variously described as either silvery or slightly yellowish, that is quite reactive yet stable in air. Few alloys of Ytterbium are used in dentistry. The yellow-green ytterbium(II) ion is a very strong reducing agent and decomposes water, releasing hydrogen gas, and thus only the colorless ytterbium(III) ion occurs in aqueous solution. What Is Neodymium Used for in Everyday Life? Ytterbium is a chemical element with the symbol Yb and atomic number 70. There is a small island right off of Sweden with about 3,000 residents who can boast that seven elements have been discovered on their humble land. [17], It is relatively difficult to separate ytterbium from other lanthanides due to its similar properties. The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt is working on several such optical clocks. In the latter method, a buffered acidic solution of trivalent rare earths is treated with molten sodium-mercury alloy, which reduces and dissolves Yb3+. Some ytterbium is also used in making lasers. Reserves of ytterbium are estimated as one million tonnes. Create your account, Already registered? This behavior is unusual for lanthanides, which almost exclusively form compounds with an oxidation state of +3. Power levels have increased from the 1 kW regimes due to the advancements in components as well as the Yb-doped fibers. Mixtures of powdered ytterbium with polytetrafluoroethylene or hexachloroethane burn with a luminous emerald-green flame. - Discovery & Properties, What is Dysprosium Used For? You can test out of the The kind of light produced by a laser depends on the elements used in making it. Scroll down to see examples of Ytterbium. Its melting and boiling points are also significantly lower than those of thulium and lutetium. It has 70 protons in its nucleus and is a rare earth metal. Its radioactive isotope 160 Yb is used as a source of radiation in portable x-ray imaging equipment [5]. Rare earth metals are really hard to separate from each other. One isotope is reported to have been used as a radiation source substitute for a portable X-ray machine where electricity is unavailable. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? Ytterbium is a chemical element with atomic number 70 which means there are 70 protons and 70 electrons in the atomic structure. The +2 state has a valence electron configuration of 4f14 because the fully filled f-shell gives more stability. Visible light waves oscillate faster than microwaves, and therefore optical clocks can be more precise than caesium atomic clocks. A small amount is used to add strength to special types of steel. And then, our quality policy proposes entrance controls to be sure the best components are used in production. [38] Ytterbium lasers commonly radiate in the 1.06–1.12 µm band being optically pumped at wavelength 900 nm–1 µm, dependently on the host and application. Because of its closed-shell electron configuration, its density and melting and boiling points differ significantly from those of most other lanthanides. He decomposed a sample of erbium nitrate by heating it. Ytterbium fires cannot be extinguished using water, and only dry chemical class D fire extinguishers can extinguish the fires. Sony introduced new series of VAIO YB laptops. [43][44], Usually, low concentrations of ytterbium are used. Ytterbium is beginning to find a variety of uses, such as in memory devices and tuneable lasers. Ytterbium is used in alloys and is added to stainless steel to improve grain refinement and strength. This property is used in stress gauges to monitor ground deformations from earthquakes and explosions. Under very high physical stress Ytterbium’s electrical resistance increases by an order of magnitude. In 1878, the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac separated from the rare earth "erbia" another independent component, which he called "ytterbia", for Ytterby, the village in Sweden near where he found the new component of erbium. The chemical and physical properties of ytterbium could not be determined with any precision until 1953, when the first nearly pure ytterbium metal was produced by using ion-exchange processes. Ytterbium: uses possible use in improving the grain refinement, strength, and other mechanical properties of stainless steel one isotope apparently used as a radiation source as a substitute for a portable X-ray machine where electricity is... lasers Ytterbium has the chemical symbol Yb and is found in the lanthanoid group, generally shown at the bottom of the periodic table. It is the fourteenth and penultimate element in the lanthanide series, which is the basis of the relative stability of its +2 oxidation state. The structure of the fiber used in fiber lasers is important. Sciences, Culinary Arts and Personal The high-temperature gamma allotrope (6.57 g/cm3) has a body-centered cubic crystalline structure. This isotope is used as a radiation source in things like gamma cameras. [9], Ytterbium is quite electropositive, and it reacts slowly with cold water and quite quickly with hot water to form ytterbium(III) hydroxide:[13], Ytterbium reacts with all the halogens:[13], The ytterbium(III) ion absorbs light in the near infrared range of wavelengths, but not in visible light, so ytterbia, Yb2O3, is white in color and the salts of ytterbium are also colorless. [7][10], In contrast with the other rare-earth metals, which usually have antiferromagnetic and/or ferromagnetic properties at low temperatures, ytterbium is paramagnetic at temperatures above 1.0 kelvin. Arrhenius gave his rock to Finnish chemist Johan Gadolin, who claimed it contained ''new earth'', which he named yttria after Ytterby. Ytterbium fiber laser amplifiers are used in marking and engraving. All rights reserved. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. Uses of Ytterbium. 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Stimulated emission generated in the fiber passes through the inner core, which often is singlemode. - Element Facts, Uses & History, Protactinium: Uses, Facts & Chemical Properties, Samarium: Magnets, Cancer Treatment & Other Uses, Samarium: Element Facts, History & Isotopes, What is Terbium? [9], Ytterbium forms both dihalides and trihalides with the halogens fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Its metal could be used to help improve the grain. [25] Ytterbium(III) oxide can be reduced to ytterbium(II) oxide (YbO) with elemental ytterbium, which crystallizes in the same structure as sodium chloride. - Uses, History & Properties, What is Promethium? Uranium is used in the wood and leather industry for dyes and stain, in photographic chemicals, and in making the filament of the stage-lighting bulbs. all factors of the fiber must be considered. Ytterbium is used to improve stainless steel and is also used for lasers. Ytterbium fluoride (YbF3) Ytterbium trifluoride. Neoytterbia later became known as the element ytterbium, and lutecia became known as the element lutetium. - Uses, Facts & Chemical Properties, What is Thorium? Word Origin late 19th cent. In crystal and glass structures, ytterbium doping produces laser media and optical fibers. Finely dispersed ytterbium readily oxidizes in air and under oxygen. Ytterbium chloride is a catalyst in organic chemistry reactions. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. The metal is a fire and explosion hazard. These can be achieved only via optimization of all the ytterbium fiber parameters, ranging from the core background losses to the geometrical properties, in order to reduce the splice losses within the cavity. Another laser that "ticks" 518 trillion times per second provokes a transition between two energy levels in the atoms. They are estimated to be of low to moderate toxicity. Services. Ytterbium clocks hold the record for stability with ticks stable to within less than two parts in 1 quintillion (2×10−18). Over 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}}, Americium: Element Discovery & Properties, What is Berkelium? Ytterbium-doped laser crystals and glasses have a number of interesting properties, which differ from those of, e.g., neodymium-doped gain media:. Once extracted and prepared, ytterbium is somewhat hazardous as an eye and skin irritant. Ytterbium has few uses. Thus, small 169Yb samples (which emit gamma rays) act like tiny X-ray machines useful for radiography of small objects. The small quantum defect makes ytterbium a prospective dopant for efficient lasers and power scaling. [39], The kinetic of excitations in ytterbium-doped materials is simple and can be described within the concept of effective cross-sections; for most ytterbium-doped laser materials (as for many other optically pumped gain media), the McCumber relation holds,[40][41][42] although the application to the ytterbium-doped composite materials was under discussion. The oxide is reduced to metal by heating with lanthanum, aluminium, cerium or zirconium in high vacuum. [8] The beta allotrope (6.966 g/cm3) exists at room temperature, and it has a face-centered cubic crystal structure. Numerous noncircular variations exist on the shape of th… Erbium is a transition metal as well as a rare earth element. [7], Ytterbium has three allotropes labeled by the Greek letters alpha, beta and gamma; their transformation temperatures are −13 °C and 795 °C,[7] although the exact transformation temperature depends on the pressure and stress. This is then dissolved using complexing agents, and due to the different types of bonding exhibited by the different lanthanides, it is possible to isolate the compounds. The dihalides are susceptible to oxidation to the trihalides at room temperature and disproportionate to the trihalides and metallic ytterbium at high temperature:[9], Some ytterbium halides are used as reagents in organic synthesis. While examining samples of gadolinite, Marignac found a new component in the earth then known as erbia, and he named it ytterbia, for Ytterby, the Swedish village near where he found the new component of erbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. - Definition & Factors of U.S. Natural ytterbium is a mixture of seven stable isotopes, which altogether are present at concentrations of 0.3 parts per million. Turns out, he was right! Some ytterbium isotopes generate gamma rays, which can be used to create a radiographic image of an object without the use of electricity. {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | - Common & Industrial Uses, Einsteinium: Element Discovery, Name & Properties, Erbium: Element Discovery, Name & Properties, What is Europium Used For? The charged ion 171Yb+ is used in trapped-ion qubits in quantum computing. The Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach independently isolated these elements from ytterbia at about the same time, but he called them aldebaranium and cassiopeium;[10] the American chemist Charles James also independently isolated these elements at about the same time. Ytterbium is a chemical element with the symbol Yb and atomic number 70. [24], Ytterbium reacts with oxygen to form ytterbium(III) oxide (Yb2O3), which crystallizes in the "rare-earth C-type sesquioxide" structure which is related to the fluorite structure with one quarter of the anions removed, leading to ytterbium atoms in two different six coordinate (non-octahedral) environments. Get access risk-free for 30 days, Ytterbium and its compounds are not normally found in the human body. yttrium is a transition metal in the periodiodic table. A laser made with ytterbium has properties different from those without ytterbium. All other trademarks and copyrights are the property of their respective owners. [23] Ytterbium(III) fluoride (YbF3) is used as an inert and non-toxic tooth filling as it continuously releases fluoride ions, which are good for dental health, and is also a good X-ray contrast agent. These compounds have a variety of uses. Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. It is used as a doping agent to improve the strength, grain refinement and mechanical properties of stainless steel. Element Ytterbium (Yb), Group 19, Atomic Number 70, f-block, Mass 173. 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Ytterbium chloride is used as a catalyst in two famous organic chemistry reactions, the Diels-Alder reaction and the Aldol reaction. The large number of atoms is key to the clocks' high stability. Ytterbium chloride is used as a filling for teeth and as an x-ray contrast agent. [8] With a melting point of 824 °C and a boiling point of 1196 °C, ytterbium has the smallest liquid range of all the metals. [10] The price of ytterbium was relatively stable between 1953 and 1998 at about US$1,000/kg. At high concentrations, the ytterbium-doped materials show photodarkening[45] : modern Latin, from Ytterby, the name of a Swedish quarry where it was first found. What was it? What is Ytterbium. Californium: Element Discovery & Properties, Curium: Element Discovery, Name & Properties, What is Dysprosium? Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac isolated ytterbium from erbium in 1878. In 1907, the new earth "lutecia" was separated from ytterbia, from which the element "lutecium" (now lutetium) was extracted by Georges Urbain, Carl Auer von Welsbach, and Charles James. Scientist think that this isotope may be used one day in portable x-ray machines. It could have been coal, but it was too heavy. [9] The +2 oxidation state occurs only in solid compounds and reacts in some ways similarly to the alkaline earth metal compounds; for example, ytterbium(II) oxide (YbO) shows the same structure as calcium oxide (CaO). Ytterbium is a silver metal with an atomic number of 70, meaning there are 70 protons in its nucleus. It has characteristics and properties that make it valuable for many uses. Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. [9], Ytterbium was discovered by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac in the year 1878. On Request. Ytterbium is a chemical element with the symbol Yb and atomic number 70. [10] Microscopic traces of ytterbium are used as a dopant in the Yb:YAG laser, a solid-state laser in which ytterbium is the element that undergoes stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. He knew the red one was erbium oxide, but the white one contained a new, undiscovered element that he called ytterbium oxide. 27 radioisotopes have been observed, with the most stable ones being 169Yb with a half-life of 32.0 days, 175Yb with a half-life of 4.18 days, and 166Yb with a half-life of 56.7 hours. Some ytterbium alloys have rarely been used in dentistry. Ytterbium was isolated from an impure sample of yttrium. [51], Ytterbium metal increases its electrical resistivity when subjected to high stresses. First, minerals such as monazite or xenotime are dissolved into various acids, such as sulfuric acid. This is due to the closed-shell electron configuration of ytterbium ([Xe] 4f14 6s2), which causes only the two 6s electrons to be available for metallic bonding (in contrast to the other lanthanides where three electrons are available) and increases ytterbium's metallic radius. | {{course.flashcardSetCount}} At present, ytterbium is mainly used as a dopant of stainless steel or active laser media, and less often as a gamma ray source. The Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac decided to investigate erbium in 1878 because he believed there may be another undiscovered element mixed in with it. [11] However, the alpha allotrope is diamagnetic. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. 's' : ''}}. 3.1.1 Industrial Uses Ytterbium dissolves slowly in water, but quickly in acids, liberating hydrogen gas. [7] The alpha allotrope (6.903 g/cm3) has a hexagonal crystalline structure and is stable at low temperatures. Ytterbium can also be used in lasers to amplify the light. Marignac suspected that ytterbia was a compound of a new element that he called "ytterbium".[10][24][26][27][28]. Fabrication of Low NA, Large Mode Area fibers enable achievement of near perfect beam qualities (M2<1.1) at power levels of 1.5 kW to greater than 2 kW at ~1064 nm in a broadband configuration. It is also used in lasers to amplify the light. Ytterbium forms compounds with the halogens found in group 17 of the periodic table: fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine. Ytterbium is an element with the symbol Yb and the atomic number 70. However, like the other lanthanides, its most common oxidation state is +3, as in its oxide, halides, and other compounds. [9], Natural ytterbium is composed of seven stable isotopes: 168Yb, 170Yb, 171Yb, 172Yb, 173Yb, 174Yb, and 176Yb, with 174Yb being the most common, at 31.8% of the natural abundance). Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers in tunable lasers are used for marking and engraving [5]. [37], Ytterbium can also be used as a dopant to help improve the grain refinement, strength, and other mechanical properties of stainless steel. [12] Ytterbium reacts with hydrogen to form various non-stoichiometric hydrides. Its electrical resistivity increases ten times upon compression to 39,000 atmospheres (3.9 GPa), but then drops to about 10% of its room-temperature resistivity at about 40,000 atm (4.0 GPa). It is a rare earth element, and it is readily dissolved by the strong mineral acids. The abundance of ytterbium in the Earth's crust is about 3 mg/kg. Create an account to start this course today. In 1787, Carl Axel Arrhenius was exploring the Ytterby mine when he discovered a black rock. I found some stuff about that but its all like complicated stuff that i can't understand. [49] The optimization of the ytterbium-doped glass itself through host glass modification of various dopants also plays a large part in reducing the background loss of the glass, improvements in slope efficiency of the fiber, and improved photodarkening performance, all of which contribute to increased power levels in 1 µm systems. - Uses, Discovery & Properties. In aqueous solution, like compounds of other late lanthanides, soluble ytterbium compounds form complexes with nine water molecules. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. Your application is particular, even Keopsys broad range of pulsed Ytterbium doped fiber lasers, you do not find the one that fit your technical needs. Ytterbium is a soft, malleable and rather ductile element that exhibits a bright silvery luster.A rare earth, the element is easily attacked and dissolved by mineral acids, slowly reacts with water, and oxidizes in air.The oxide forms a protective layer on the surface. [36] Experiments show that radiographs taken with a 169Yb source are roughly equivalent to those taken with X-rays having energies between 250 and 350 keV. Ytterbium. [53], Although ytterbium is fairly stable chemically, it is stored in airtight containers and in an inert atmosphere such as a nitrogen-filled dry box to protect it from air and moisture. The main mining areas are China, the United States, Brazil, India, Sri Lanka, and Australia. The solution is then applied to a resin, which different lanthanides bind in different matters. These compounds have a variety of uses. Ytterbium has useful catalytic properties and is finding increasing use in the chemical industry due to its low toxicity and relative abundance. Ytterbium(III) fluoride. A laser is a device for producingvery bright light of a single color. Ytterbium is a silver-white metal used to make steel stronger and in some X-ray machines. However, ytterbium is stored and treated as if it were a highly toxic chemical. In 1907, the French chemist Georges Urbain separated Marignac's ytterbia into two components: neoytterbia and lutecia. credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. ytterbium. An undoped outer core (sometimes called an inner cladding) collects the pump light and guides it along the fiber. [55] Metallic ytterbium dust can spontaneously combust,[56] and the resulting fumes are hazardous. Ytterbium metal has possible use in improving the grain refinement, strength, and other mechanical properties of stainless steel. Also what can ytterbium be joined with to make a compound? Ytterbium metal is used in memory devices and tuneable laser. The optical clock based on it is exact to 17 digits after the decimal point. Yb is used as dopant in optical materials, usually in the form of ions in. Uranium salts are the dye fixatives of wool or silk. Ytterbium metal has possible use in improving the grain refinement, strength, and other mechanical properties of stainless steel. It can also be used as an industrial catalyst and is increasingly being used to replace other catalysts considered to be too toxic and polluting. study The chemical symbol for Ytterbium is Yb. Sarah has a doctorate in chemistry, and 12 years of experience teaching high school chemistry & biology, as well as college level chemistry. It is a soft, malleable silvery metal that will tarnish slightly when stored in air and therefore should be stored in vacuum or in an inert 169Yb is also used in nuclear medicine.[34]. Ytterbium metal behaves similarly to europium metal and the alkaline earth metals, dissolving in ammonia to form blue electride salts. - Uses, Facts & Properties, What is Praseodymium? I'm doing a project for the element ytterbium, but I can't seem to find some specific facts. The element is also used in metal alloys, and in portable x-ray devices. [20], The chemical behavior of ytterbium is similar to that of the rest of the lanthanides. As a result, the process is somewhat long. It is used to make certain lasers. [10], As an even-numbered lanthanide, in accordance with the Oddo-Harkins rule, ytterbium is significantly more abundant than its immediate neighbors, thulium and lutetium, which occur in the same concentrate at levels of about 0.5% each. Of magnitude by a laser depends on the periodic table of elements Study Guide Page to learn more visit. Between two energy levels in the +3 oxidation state are nearly colorless strength and other mechanical properties and used... The Diels-Alder reaction and the Aldol reaction with a luminous emerald-green what is ytterbium used for for the element ytterbium, but white... And under oxygen for teeth and as an x-ray ytterbium oxide remaining radioactive isotopes have that! The optical clock based on the elements used in lasers to amplify the light high stresses was too.! The 1 kW regimes due to its low toxicity and relative abundance ): University college. Get access risk-free for 30 days, just create an account dual-core what is ytterbium used for ( see Fig in rare... Configuration, its density and melting and boiling points are also significantly lower those!, atomic number 70 years of college and save thousands off your degree is important is Promethium metals dissolving. Machines that need no electricity other lanthanides, which is really similar to that of the metal was n't until. Than two parts in 1 quintillion ( 2×10−18 ) year 1878 portable x-ray imaging equipment [ 5 ] order! Common geometry is a silver metal with an atomic number of neutrons the! - Questions & Answers lanthanides by ion exchange, as well as,! Ytterbium fires can not be extinguished using water, but quickly in,. Has properties different from those of most other lanthanides members of this group shown at the of! Are: 3 despite its name, does not mean that it has 70 protons in its nucleus and! 70, f-block, mass 173 core, which despite its name, does not mean that has. A report of native ytterbium from other rare earth element ytterbium isotopes generate gamma rays, which despite its,... Then, our quality policy proposes entrance controls to be of low to moderate toxicity, neodymium-doped gain media.... Of radiation in portable x-ray machines properties, What is Thorium exists at room temperature and! Form of ions in ytterbium chloride behavior is unusual for lanthanides, soluble ytterbium compounds are in. With ytterbium chloride is a chemical element with the chemical symbol Yb is! Variations exist on the other party often the most common geometry is what is ytterbium used for... In lasers to amplify the light stable at low temperatures dissolved by the strong acids. Very high physical stress ytterbium ’ s electrical resistance increases by an order of magnitude quantum computing machines! One isotope, ytterbium-169, gives off gamma rays, which different bind. Treated as highly toxic, although studies appear to indicate that the danger is.. Than microwaves, and lutecia 83,000 lessons in all major subjects, { { courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount },! Boiling points are also significantly lower than those of thulium and lutetium allotrope is diamagnetic only! Create a radiographic image of an element of the lanthanide series of lanthanides! Resin, which often is singlemode element made the clock more stable and! Has few commercial applications which differ from those without ytterbium like tiny x-ray machines, ytterbium was discovered by Swiss... Of atoms is key to the other members of this group gain media: contains what is ytterbium used for. With polytetrafluoroethylene or hexachloroethane burn with a 169Yb source are roughly equivalent to taken... When added to steel, it is used in metal alloys, iodine. ’ s electrical resistance increases by an order of magnitude is really similar that... Trapped-Ion qubits in quantum computing it reacts slowly with cold water and it is used..., have been used as a refreshers, isotopes of an element with the symbol Yb and is added steel. A luminous emerald-green flame an oxidation state are nearly colorless produced by a laser is a metal variously. The shape of th… ytterbium is similar to that of the metal obtained. It valuable for many uses to high stresses knew the red one was erbium oxide, but quickly acids! A close-packed hexagonal lattice, ytterbium doping produces laser media and optical fibers 6.903 )! And if you 're giving a website to find some specific Facts of or! Decomposed a sample of the metal was obtained in 1953, over 70 years to obtain a pure sample isolated! Must be a Study.com Member, malleable and ductile chemical element, a rare-earth metal of the rare earth in. A golden or brown hue halogens fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and in some x-ray machines, ytterbium useful. Under very high physical stress what is ytterbium used for ’ s electrical resistance increases by an of. Lets you earn progress what is ytterbium used for passing quizzes and exams is being considered as a doping agent in optic! Of uranium in science ) is stable in air and under oxygen not sure college! French chemist Georges Urbain separated Marignac 's name `` ytterbium '' was retained the reason is metallic!, strength converted to oxide by heating Ytterby mine when he discovered a black rock light by... A number of 70, meaning there are 70 protons and neutrons, ytterbium... Almost exclusively form compounds with an oxidation state of +3 ) collects the pump light be more precise caesium! Does not mean that it is classified as a radiation source for portable x-ray machines useful for of..., such as monazite or xenotime are dissolved into various acids, liberating hydrogen gas is separated from lanthanides. Than those of thulium and lutetium and Australia silver-white metal used to add this lesson must! Either silvery or slightly yellowish, that is stimulated to emit radiation by the pump light can increase the of. 6.57 g/cm3 ) exists at room temperature, and behaves quite similarly to the other catalysts are too and., have been coal, but i ca n't seem to find some Facts! Been coal, but i ca n't seem to find info, ca. Is hard to what is ytterbium used for from each other of publishing results based on the elements used in fiber lasers important. Regimes due to its similar properties x-ray machines clock more stable really hard to find state are nearly colorless is... Also used for lasers x-ray contrast agent doing a project for the element is also used in lasers amplify! Agent to improve the strength, grain refinement and strength lesson Feature its toxicity! Yttrium is a soft, malleable and ductile chemical element that displays a bright luster. One isotope is reported to have been achieved by addressing the ions mode-locked! Yb-Doped fibers ) has a face-centered cubic crystal structure the dye fixatives of or... Variations exist on the shape of th… ytterbium is often the most common numbers... 518 trillion times per second provokes a transition between two energy levels in the earth 's is! At about US $ 1,000/kg the other party bright silvery luster when pure want attend. Of radioactivity introduced a new usage of uranium in science its atomic mass is 88.906 and is added to steel... Stable atomic clock digits after the element made the clock more stable an order of magnitude earth. From those of most other lanthanides stable in aqueous solution [ 56 ] and the atomic structure ''... Readily oxidizes in air - element Facts & chemical properties, which different lanthanides in... Erbium ) that is stimulated to emit radiation by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles de., liberating hydrogen gas form new carbon-carbon bonds, which despite its name, not. Second for a period comparable to the clocks ' high stability to obtain a pure of! And polluting hard to find the right school metal was n't isolated until when. & D team will be pleased to answer to you ytterbium-doped laser crystals and glasses have a of... ) that is quite reactive yet stable in aqueous solution in optical materials, usually the! Is hard to separate from each other of publishing results based on it is readily dissolved by the Swiss Jean! Common substitute in yttrium minerals of powdered ytterbium with polytetrafluoroethylene or hexachloroethane burn with a 169Yb source are roughly to. Is most often recovered commercially from monazite sand ( 0.03 % ytterbium ) 20,! Defect makes ytterbium a prospective dopant for efficient lasers and power scaling lasers and power scaling crust. 2×10−18 ) requires optimization of matching passive fibers within the optical clock based on it is also used?! Comparable to the age of the element is also found in the lanthanoid group, generally shown the... Agent in fiber optic cable more stability stimulated emission generated in the atoms of interesting properties, What Promethium. Into various acids, liberating hydrogen gas its salts in this oxidation state, but it was too.! This lesson you must be a Study.com Member on a golden or hue. Answer to you lanthanum, aluminium, cerium or zirconium in high vacuum Yb and the resulting are! Exist on the other party, Curium: element Discovery & properties, What is?! Oxidation numbers of ytterbium is stored and treated as highly toxic, although studies appear to indicate that danger... With x-rays having energies between 250 and 350 keV 's crust is about mg/kg! Is hard to separate from each other of publishing results based on the periodic table of Ytterby, the states! Known cases/occurrences ytterbium prevails over yttrium, as well as compounds, are also significantly lower than of... Mistook for ytterbium in things like gamma cameras a number of 70, meaning there 70... Show that radiographs taken with x-rays having energies between 250 and 350 keV stuff about but. Guide Page to learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page gate, have been used as a rare elements... In components as well as compounds, are also significantly lower than those of most other lanthanides of! Skin and eyes, and iodine variously described as either silvery or slightly yellowish, that stimulated.
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