According to Steven Pinker, it is "not a single theory but a large set of hypotheses" and a term that "has also come to refer to a particular way of applying evolutionary theory to the mind, with an emphasis on adaptation, gene-level selection, and modularity." The fact that males, but not females, risk potential misidentification of genetic offspring (referred to as "paternity insecurity") led evolutionary psychologists to hypothesize that, compared to females, male jealousy would be more focused on sexual, rather than emotional, infidelity. Current Evolutionary Adaptiveness of Psychiatric Disorders: Fertility Rates, Parent-Child Relationship Quality, and Psychiatric Disorders. Evolutionary psychology is not evil! It tells a story of a boat crew that was caught in a storm in the year 1991. by Clinical Evolutionary Psychologist Dale Glaebach, Evolutionary Psychology – Approaches in Psychology, The International Society for Human Ethology, European Human Behaviour and Evolution Association, The Association for Politics and the Life Sciences, The New England Institute for Cognitive Science and Evolutionary Psychology, The NorthEastern Evolutionary Psychology Society, Association for Politics and the Life Sciences, Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective, Biological Theory: Integrating Development, Evolution and Cognition, The Evolutionary Review – Art, Science, and Culture, Brief video clip from the "Evolution" PBS Series, The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature, Richard Dawkins' lecture on natural selection and evolutionary psychology, Evolutionary Psychology – Steven Pinker & Frans de Waal, Stone Age Minds: A conversation with evolutionary psychologists Leda Cosmides and John Tooby, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Evolutionary psychology research groups and centers, Bibliography of evolution and human behavior,, Articles with dead external links from July 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2008, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2011, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from April 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Organismic trait designed to solve an ancestral problem(s). Under this view, any Domain-general learning is impossible because of the Combinatorial explosion. Evolutionary Psychology. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Parental investment theory explains how parents invest more or less in individual offspring based on how successful those offspring are likely to be, and thus how much they might improve the parents' inclusive fitness. In J. Levine Group Processes Chapter 12 (2012). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Gaulin, Steven J. C. and Donald H. McBurney. [150], Some critics view evolutionary psychology as a form of genetic reductionism and genetic determinism,[157][158] a common critique being that evolutionary psychology does not address the complexity of individual development and experience and fails to explain the influence of genes on behavior in individual cases. [27] Charles Darwin described both natural selection and sexual selection, and he relied on group selection to explain the evolution of altruistic (self-sacrificing) behavior. The cultural niche: Why social learning is essential for human adaptation. [6] In The Origin of Species, Darwin predicted that psychology would develop an evolutionary basis: In the distant future I see open fields for far more important researches. These adaptations may have been a consequence of tribal warfare. ),[111] while others have argued that kin recognition can also be mediated by biological factors such as facial resemblance and immunogenetic similarity of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Evolutionary psychology approaches self-deception as an adaptation that can improve one's results in social exchanges. [80] In the 1980s, psycholinguist Myrna Gopnik identified a dominant gene that causes language impairment in the KE family of Britain. [139], Many conflicts that result in harm and death involve status, reputation, and seemingly trivial insults. This operational standard, extensively used in ecological studies, is accepted merely as an objective, available index ap- propriate to this study. Adaptationist perspectives on religious belief suggest that, like all behavior, religious behaviors are a product of the human brain. More specifically, the environment of evolutionary adaptedness is defined as the set of historically recurring selection pressures that formed a given adaptation, as well as those aspects of the environment that were necessary for the proper development and functioning of the adaptation. In M. Gallagher & R.J. Nelson (Eds.). Kandos School of Cultural Adaptation (KSCA) was formed in 2016 by a group of people interested in the idea that art can be any activity that brings about cultural change. The brain's adaptive mechanisms were shaped by natural and sexual selection. (Eds.) 0 0. lurleen. Our results thus show that cumulative cultural adaptation relies on the combination of individual intelligence and ‘blind’ population-level processes, although the former may be rarely used. "From vigilance to violence: Tactics of mate retention in American undergraduates", "Sex differences in human mate preferences: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures", "Sex differences in jealousy: Evolution, physiology, and psychology", "Adaptations, Exaptations, and Spandrels", "Evolutionary psychology is a metatheory for psychology", "Human mate poaching: Tactics and temptations for infiltrating existing relationships", "Evolutionary psychology: A new paradigm for psychological science", "Evolutionary Psychology: Controversies, Questions, Prospects, and Limitations", "Evolutionary psychology: An emerging integrative perspective within the science and practice of psychology", Gerhard Medicus (2015). Or not. [69] Taste and smell respond to chemicals in the environment that are thought to have been significant for fitness in the environment of evolutionary adaptedness. The size differences of gametes (anisogamy) is the fundamental, defining difference between males (small gametes – sperm) and females (large gametes – ova). Proponents of evolutionary psychology in the 1990s made some explorations in historical events, but the response from historical experts was highly negative and there has been little effort to continue that line of research. [70] Evolutionary psychologists believe that humans also learn language along an evolved program, also with critical periods. He argues instead that from a biological viewpoint the evolutionary origins of language is best conceptualized as being the probable result of a convergence of many separate adaptations into a complex system. [48] A potential explanation is that spiders and snakes were a threat to human ancestors throughout the Pleistocene, whereas guns (and rabbits and flowers) were not. Biological Psychology (11th ed.). (2000). Some of these speculations have yet to be developed into fully testable hypotheses, and a great deal of research is required to confirm their validity. Altruists may also have some way to recognize altruistic behavior in unrelated individuals and be inclined to support them. (2004) indicates that highly fertile women prefer men who display social presence and intrasexual competition; these traits may act as cues that would help women predict which men may have, or would be able to acquire, resources. "[35] As noted by Williams and others, adaptations can be identified by their improbable complexity, species universality, and adaptive functionality. [75] Finally, like many other psychological adaptations, personality traits may be facultative – sensitive to typical variations in the social environment, especially during early development. Motivation has a neurobiological basis in the reward system of the brain. The environment of evolutionary adaptedness is significantly different from modern society. Different neural mechanisms are specialized for solving problems in humanity's evolutionary past. He criticizes some strands of evolutionary psychology for suggesting a pan-adaptionist view of evolution, and dismisses Pinker and Bloom's question of whether "Language has evolved as an adaptation" as being misleading. Cultural Adaptation Cultural adaptation is a relatively new concept used to define the specific capacity of human beings and human societies to overcome changes of their natural and social environment by modifications to their culture. This means they use a system of shared symbols to … gestation followed by childbirth and lactation). Material Histories of Cold. This hypothesis allows researchers to examine whether women select mates who have characteristics that indicate high genetic quality during the high fertility phase of their ovulatory cycles. Alcock, John (2001). [135]) A 1994 report by the American Psychiatry Association found that people suffered from schizophrenia at roughly the same rate in Western and non-Western cultures, and in industrialized and pastoral societies, suggesting that schizophrenia is not a disease of civilization nor an arbitrary social invention. The model of males as both providers and protectors is criticized for the impossibility of being in two places at once, the male cannot both protect his family at home and be out hunting at the same time. [119] Liking and disliking, he says, evolved to help present day humans' ancestors form coalitions with others who reciprocated and to exclude those who did not reciprocate. Trivers proposed that this difference in parental investment leads to the sexual selection of different reproductive strategies between the sexes and to sexual conflict. In B. Campbell (Ed.). In one such adaptation, the eggs or larvae are distasteful, inedible, or apparently harmful to potential enemies. [72], Cognition refers to internal representations of the world and internal information processing. "social behaviour, animal." Oxford: Oxford University Press. Or higher levels of refractive errors in American Indian populations where young braves with good vision went off to war while those who couldn’t see stayed home and survived. Sterelny, Kim. [69], In evolutionary psychology, learning is said to be accomplished through evolved capacities, specifically facultative adaptations. Cambridge University Press. [37] Evolved psychological adaptations (such as the ability to learn a language) interact with cultural inputs to produce specific behaviors (e.g., the specific language learned). This suggests that for men sexual infidelity would generally be more aversive than emotional infidelity because investing resources in another man's offspring does not lead to propagation of their own genes.[102]. [68] Consistent with this hypothesis, Gordon Gallup found that chimps and orangutans, but not little monkeys or terrestrial gorillas, demonstrated self-awareness in mirror tests. A question that may be asked about an adaptation is whether it is generally obligate (relatively robust in the face of typical environmental variation) or facultative (sensitive to typical environmental variation). The perfect storm adaptation The film was created in the year 2000 by Wolfgang Petersen and was ified as a dramatic disaster. [80] This gene turned out to be a mutation of the FOXP2 gene. "[186], Application of evolutionary theory to identify which human psychological traits are evolved adaptations, Products of evolution: adaptations, exaptations, byproducts, and random variation, Survival and individual-level psychological adaptations, Strong reciprocity (or "tribal reciprocity"), Cultural rather than genetic development of cognitive tools, Confer et al. Firstly, it is the dynamic evolutionary process that fits organisms to their environment, enhancing their evolutionary fitness. [71] He found evidence that humans share at least five basic emotions: fear, sadness, happiness, anger, and disgust. Abstract Human beings are biologically adapted for culture in ways that other primates are not, as evidenced most clearly by the fact that only human cultural traditions accumulate modifications over historical time (the ratchet effect). Hamilton noted that genes can increase the replication of copies of themselves into the next generation by influencing the organism's social traits in such a way that (statistically) results in helping the survival and reproduction of other copies of the same genes (most simply, identical copies in the organism's close relatives). The process of adaptation occurs through an eventual change in the gene frequency relative to advantages conferred by a particular characteristic, as with the coloration of wings in the moths. [68], Sleep may have evolved to conserve energy when activity would be less fruitful or more dangerous, such as at night, and especially during the winter season. One of the keys to the process of adaptation is biological or behavioral variation, thereby implicating the notion of selection and the processes of decision making (Bates, 2005). [69] Pain, while unpleasant, is adaptive. [76] It is important to note that shared environmental influences do play a role in personality and are not always of less importance than genetic factors. It may have been evolutionary advantageous to engage in highly risky and violently aggressive behavior to increase their status and therefore reproductive success. 2009. However, much disagreement has arisen over the role of history and constraint in the appearance of traits as well as the best methodology for showing that a trait is truly an adaptation. [129], Adaptationist hypotheses regarding the etiology of psychological disorders are often based on analogies between physiological and psychological dysfunctions,[130] as noted in the table below. Secondly, it is a state reached by the population during that process. Workman & Reader (2008), Evolutionary Psychology, 2nd Ed. 2, pp. [54] His argument is that humans are not adapted to work in large, anonymous bureaucratic structures with formal hierarchies. Springer, Boston, MA, 2003. Parental investment and sexual selection. References . The adapted mind: Evolutionary psychology and the generation of culture. Special attention is paid to sociobiology and evolutionary psychology in the context of an anthropological Evolution and Groups. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In the case of the claim that a provider male could buy protection service for his family from other males by bartering food that he had hunted, critics point at the fact that the most valuable food (the food that contained the rarest essential nutrients) would be different in different ecologies and as such vegetable in some geographical areas and animal in others, making it impossible for hunting styles relying on physical strength or risk taking to be universally of similar value in bartered food and instead making it inevitable that in some parts of Africa, food gathered with no need for major physical strength would be the most valuable to barter for protection. [65] In contrast, others have argued that the recursive circuitry underwriting consciousness is much more primitive, having evolved initially in pre-mammalian species because it improves the capacity for interaction with both social and natural environments by providing an energy-saving "neutral" gear in an otherwise energy-expensive motor output machine. Several mid-level evolutionary theories inform evolutionary psychology. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). It may also be defined as the state reached by the biological population undergoing adjustments or changes. [84] A similar argument is made by Terrence Deacon who in The Symbolic Species argues that the different features of language have co-evolved with the evolution of the mind and that the ability to use symbolic communication is integrated in all other cognitive processes. Homing pigeons, for example, can hear very low-pitched sound (infrasound) that carries great distances, even though most smaller animals detect higher-pitched sounds. "[32], Not all traits of organisms are evolutionary adaptations. Two of his later books were devoted to the study of animal emotions and psychology; The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex in 1871 and The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals in 1872. [69] Sensory abilities of different organisms often coevolve, as is the case with the hearing of echolocating bats and that of the moths that have evolved to respond to the sounds that the bats make. [167] Similarly, Dominic Murphy argues that alternative explanations cannot just be forwarded but instead need their own evidence and predictions - if one explanation makes predictions that the others cannot, it is reasonable to have confidence in that explanation. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Hamilton's rule describes mathematically whether or not a gene for altruistic behavior will spread in a population: The concept serves to explain how natural selection can perpetuate altruism. Natural selection favors strategies that base the decision to help on the reputation of the recipient: studies show that people who are more helpful are more likely to receive help. spoken language(s) tools of all sorts - early hominins used rocks to shapen other rocks, wood, bone, etc for hunting gear, knives, etc. Adaptation is the evolutionary process where an organism becomes better suited to its habitat. The discipline is generally not focused on proximate analyses of behavior, but rather its focus is on the study of distal/ultimate causality (the evolution of psychological adaptations). Material Histories of Cold The habitat adaptations of walruses (thick skin to protect against cold conditions), hippopotamuses (nostrils on the top of the snout), and ducks (webbed feet). [147], Some criticisms of evolutionary psychology point at contradictions between different aspects of adaptive scenarios posited by evolutionary psychology. ), The Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology (pp. [41] Evolutionary psychologists respond that they are working within a nature-nurture interactionist framework that acknowledges that many psychological adaptations are facultative (sensitive to environmental variations during individual development). While each of these hypotheses has its merits, each is still highly speculative and requires more evidence from different areas of research (such as linguistics and anthropology). [69] Sound waves go around corners and interact with obstacles, creating a complex pattern that includes useful information about the sources of and distances to objects. Segerstråle, Ullica Christina Olofsdotter (2000). An adaptation is any variation that can increase one’s biological fitness in a specific environment; more simply it is the successful interaction of a population with its environment. [74] Or, personality traits may represent different genetically predisposed "behavioral morphs" – alternate behavioral strategies that depend on the frequency of competing behavioral strategies in the population. First, from at least 5200 BP to about 3600 BP large, sedentary, stable populations lived astride the altitudinal limits of their ability to cope with the initial complications of hypoxia but also the limits of predictable millet-based agriculture. [124], As humans are a highly social species, there are many adaptive problems associated with navigating the social world (e.g., maintaining allies, managing status hierarchies, interacting with outgroup members, coordinating social activities, collective decision-making). The content of evolutionary psychology has derived from, on the one hand, the biological sciences (especially evolutionary theory as it relates to ancient human environments, the study of paleoanthropology and animal behavior) and, on the other, the human sciences, especially psychology. [70], Motivations direct and energize behavior, while emotions provide the affective component to motivation, positive or negative. ", Workman, Lance and Will Reader (2004) Evolutionary psychology: an introduction. The process of being bicultural or intercultural usually begins with overcoming the language barrier. It takes its name from the fairy tale character Cinderella, who in the story was cruelly mistreated by her stepmother and stepsisters. [69] More than half the brain is devoted to processing sensory information, and the brain itself consumes roughly one-fourth of one's metabolic resources, so the senses must provide exceptional benefits to fitness. 64–65). [159][178][179][180][181][182][183][184][185] Robert Kurzban suggested that "...critics of the field, when they err, are not slightly missing the mark. Within cultural evolutionary theory, adaptation has broadly the same meaning as in biology, describing the process(es) by which a cultural system becomes better fit to its environment, thereby enhancing survival and persistence. 5–67). Men, on the other hand, are never certain of the genetic paternity of their children because they do not bear the offspring themselves ("paternity insecurity"). These evolutionary psychologists argue that much of human behavior is the output of psychological adaptations that evolved to solve recurrent problems in human ancestral environments. Thus Alcock concludes that researchers can make predictions on the adaptive value of traits. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Darwin's work inspired William James's functionalist approach to psychology. Hence the dissatisfaction and alienation that many employees experience. Evolutionary psychology: an introduction. [49][50], This mismatch also shows up in the phenomena of the supernormal stimulus, a stimulus that elicits a response more strongly than the stimulus for which the response evolved. [6][160] Thus because there are a potentially infinite number of alternative explanations for why a trait evolved, critics contend that it is impossible to determine the exact explanation. [85], If the theory that language could have evolved as a single adaptation is accepted, the question becomes which of its many functions has been the basis of adaptation. Buss, D.M. p. 150. Buller, David J. Psychological adaptations are hypothesized to be innate or relatively easy to learn, and to manifest in cultures worldwide. The idea of an environment of evolutionary adaptedness was first explored as a part of attachment theory by John Bowlby. [10][11].mw-parser-output .toclimit-2 .toclevel-1 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-3 .toclevel-2 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-4 .toclevel-3 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-5 .toclevel-4 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-6 .toclevel-5 ul,.mw-parser-output .toclimit-7 .toclevel-6 ul{display:none}. Gaulin, Steven J. C. and Donald H. McBurney. Corresponding Neurological Modules. [69] Depth perception consists of processing over half a dozen visual cues, each of which is based on a regularity of the physical world. and once that is breached, becoming "enculturated" with the host culture and "deculturated" from one's own culture becomes easier. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [42] This is the environment to which a particular evolved mechanism is adapted. [159], A frequent critique of the discipline is that the hypotheses of evolutionary psychology are frequently arbitrary and difficult or impossible to adequately test, thus questioning its status as an actual scientific discipline, for example because many current traits probably evolved to serve different functions than they do now. 4 The Therapeutic Relationship and Technical Adjustments 86. [70] The input can also come during daily tasks, helping the organism cope with changing environmental conditions. [53] The psychologist Mark van Vugt recently argued that modern organizational leadership is a mismatch. [citation needed], Nikolaas Tinbergen's four categories of questions can help to clarify the distinctions between several different, but complementary, types of explanations. Organisms are adapted to their environments in a variety of ways, such as in their structure, physiology, and genetics. Consistent with the theory of natural selection, evolutionary psychology sees humans as often in conflict with others, including mates and relatives. Although advocates of the cognitive niche hypothesis focus on cognition, they do not ignore social learning. weaving. [163] Evolutionary psychologists respond that they do know many things about this environment, including the facts that present day humans' ancestors were hunter-gatherers, that they generally lived in small tribes, etc. [27][28] Sexual selection provides organisms with adaptations related to mating. These theories help to explain the development of altruistic behavior, and account for hostility toward cheaters (individuals that take advantage of others' altruism).[29]. Trivers posited that differential parental investment led to the evolution of sexual dimorphisms in mate choice, intra- and inter- sexual reproductive competition, and courtship displays. Evolutionary psychologists say that natural selection has provided humans with many psychological adaptations, in much the same way that it generated humans' anatomical and physiological adaptations. testing the proposal that culture is biological adaptation, as measured by the cri- terion of relative abundance of organisms. This One Goes to Eleven, PZ Myers, and Other Punch Lines. cultural means of adaptation C) social institutions, such as the state, that coordinate collective action D) biological means of adaptation, mostly thanks to advanced medical research E) technological means of adaptation, such as the creation of virtual worlds that allow us to escape from day-to-day reality. Chapter 6. Abstract Human beings are biologically adapted for culture in ways that other primates are not, as evidenced most clearly by the fact that only human cultural traditions accumulate modifications over historical time (the ratchet effect). Like other organs and tissues, this functional structure should be universally shared amongst a species, and should solve important problems of survival and reproduction. Adaptation, in biology, the process by which a species becomes fitted to its environment; it is the result of natural selection’s acting upon heritable variation over several generations. [36] Evolutionary developmental psychology, or "evo-devo," focuses on how adaptations may be activated at certain developmental times (e.g., losing baby teeth, adolescence, etc.) 161-184. [12], Just as human physiology and evolutionary physiology have worked to identify physical adaptations of the body that represent "human physiological nature," the purpose of evolutionary psychology is to identify evolved emotional and cognitive adaptations that represent "human psychological nature." Cultural Adaptation Is a Population Process. Cambridge University Press p. 277. you get the idea. that not only incorporates the evolutionary sciences on a full and equal basis, but that systematically works out all of the revisions in existing belief and research practice that such a synthesis requires. [103][104] The theoretical underpinning of this research is that ancestral women would have evolved mechanisms to select mates with certain traits depending on their hormonal status. [135] (Some individuals with bipolar disorder are especially creative during their manic phases and the close relatives of people with schizophrenia have been found to be more likely to have creative professions. They see step parental care as primarily "mating effort" towards the genetic parent.[108]. The comparative method, using comparisons across species that have evolved independently, is an effective means for studying historical and physical constraints. Chapter 2. Such a strategy may be adopted by men who otherwise are unlikely to be appealing to women and therefore cannot form legitimate relationships, or by high status men on socially vulnerable women who are unlikely to retaliate to increase their reproductive success even further. Cecilia Heyes has argued that the picture presented by some evolutionary psychology of the human mind as a collection of cognitive instincts – organs of thought shaped by genetic evolution over very long time periods[175][17] – does not fit research results. Evolutionary Psychology. Gaulin & McBurney (2004), Evolutionary Psychology, 2nd Ed. One of the most common forms of constraint involves the function of anatomical traits that differ in size. W.W. Norton & Co, Workman, Lance and Will Reader (2004) Evolutionary psychology: an introduction.